Sudo is a program that lets a certain user run a program as root or another user. For instance say you want to let a user run
/usr/sbin/alsactl with root privilege , but not give them your root password? In sudo you can do this! First su into root and type:
You will now see a few example lines, Now first lets make the user "sandman1" be able to run alsactl as root:
sandman1 ALL = /usr/sbin/alsactl
Now of course you change the values of the following above. The first value "sandman1" is of course the username.
is the hostname, now you can actually put the real host name there , or you can allow a user to be on any host by adding
ALL. Now log into the user and type the following:
This command will ask you for a password, type YOURS in and not root
and boom, you now can run /usr/sbin/alsactl as
root. With sudo you can also run programs as a different username besides root:
sandman1 192.168.0.2 = (test) /usr/sbin/alsactl
Now you noticed that I used an actual IP address in this
example. (That is my local IP anyways) Now you noticed the
(test) that is the username that it will run as if i type the following command:
sudo -u test /usr/sbin/alsactl
Now the following example makes it so you do not have to type any password in:
%wheel ALL = NOPASSWD: /usr/sbin/alsactl
The % symbolizes that wheel is not a user, but a group. Now if you are
in the group wheel and type "sudo /usr/sbin/alsactl",
you will notice that it did not ask you for the password! Now all of this is great, but what happens when you have more
than 1 user that is not in the same group, but want to run the same command as root?
User_Alias GROUPOFUSERS = sandman1, sandy GROUPOFUSERS ALL = NOPASSWD: /usr/sbin/alsactl
Now the 2 users sandman1, and sandy can run /usr/sbin/alsactl as
root! Now see how easy it is to add multiple users?
You can also add multiple Hosts as well:
Host_Alias SWEETHOST = 192.168.0.2, 192.168.0.3 sandman1 SWEETHOST = NOPASSWD: /usr/sbin/alsactl
Now you see how easy it is to setup multiple hosts? Now to find out
what commands you can run using sudo just type the
That will list all the commands you are aloud to run! Now sudo is an easy tool and I hope you have a great time using it.